Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Line a large baking sheet with parchment paper. Toss broccoli florets and red bell pepper with one tablespoon olive oil. Spread on prepared sheet. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Bake for 20 minutes until just tender. Remove from oven and set aside.
In a small bowl, whisk together brown sugar, soy sauce, sesame oil, red pepper and ground ginger. Set aside.
Heat remaining 1 tablespoon olive oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add garlic and cook, stirring constantly for 1 minute. Add ground beef and cook until browned, making sure to crumble the beef as it cooks. Drain fat.
Stir in soy sauce mixture until well combined. Cook for about 2 minutes, until heated through. Add the broccoli and red peppers and toss to combine.
Serve immediately over the rice. Garnish with sliced green onions and sesame seeds.