Place pureed strawberries, confectioners' sugar and lemon juice in a saucepan over medium-low heat. Cook, stirring often until mixture reduces to about 3/4 cup. Set aside to cool completely.
Add heavy cream and vanilla extract to a large mixing bowl. Beat with a hand mixer until firm peaks form. Fold the cooled strawberry mixture into the cold whipped cream with a rubber spatula until well blended. Spoon mixture into small cups or dishes. Refrigerate for at least 4 hours before serving. Garnish with a fresh strawberry.